今年9月14-23日，朝邦文教基金會邀請到約翰‧米爾頓 (John Milton)來台，在離台北不遠的陽明山和花蓮國家公園引導我們進行《Way of Nature》研修。2011年9月的朝邦對話新訊息中，曾經刊登米爾頓的文章「身處當下的12個原則」，他是一位力倡「存在於當下」概念的權威，也是U型理論作者奧托‧夏墨 (Otto Scharmer)和彼得‧聖吉 (Peter Senge)的精神導師。就如聖吉所說，有許多「領導人物，特別是企業界的領袖，都經由米爾頓
因此從這個月起，每期的對話新訊息將談及一些從大自然中學習管理內在的重點。本月為各位分享的是一篇Gina Hinrich的文章，名為「有機組織的設計」，清楚地解說了組織設計的演進過程。Hinrichs注意到組織透過目標導向的方針、開放的態度 、整體思考、局部聚焦和賦權的做法、分佈式/網絡式的結構、彼此連結、多元化、成長和改變，因此逐漸從機械式的型態演變成有機的型態。全球有越來越多有關這方面的訊息慢慢形成，讓我們更瞭解如何設計出促成變革的有機過程，可以展現協調、平衡、整合、持續性的進化，這樣的過程也更有效，效果也更有彈性、可續、強韌；這樣的變革涵蓋「內在」與「外在」，在深層都因個人而有所不同，但同質性也很高。
Hinrich的組織模式形狀如軟體動物，也在下列的文章中詳細介紹：「有機的組織設計」( “Organic OrganizationDesign” (Hinrichs, G. (2009) Organic Organization Design. OD Practitioner, Vol 41, No. 4.).
一個有機的組織設計 (Org2)共有六個面向 (請看螺旋體模型)，是有點順序的漸進式步驟 (目標、原則、練習、參與者、元件和流程)，而且絕對反覆進行，探索整合過的組織/社區的本質，是一個開放式系統的組織，可以支持組織的成長、充分回應各種狀態、也賦予足夠的權力。這個模式特別適合因為彼此瞭解、理念堅定而凝聚在一起的當地和全球性的社群。
Org2 組織設計的六個面向 – 高層次的說明
- 原則與價值觀：清晰、大家理解並同意的文字，說明指引參與者為了達成目標而進行的行動背後的原因 (是什麼)。組織的原則和共有的信念(也就是這個「什麼」)是內在的價觀，整合並協調彼此關係的內在價值觀。
- 練習：有關如何運作、如何一起成長的明確說明 (該如何做) (例如：權力/權威的歸屬、作決定的過程、負責任的機制、資源的分配與取得、知識的分享、肯定)。當參與者預先知道其他人運作的模式，就更能建立起組織內的互信。當組織內有最低限度的共識，就能有所創新。
請各位繼續鎖定接下來的對話新訊息，將會為各位介紹biomimicry模擬生物體 – 如何從大自然學習、模仿大自然，藉此解決人類的問題，並創造出更永續生存的組織結構。
This September 14-23 the CP Yen Foundation will host John Milton in Taiwan to lead a Way of Nature retreat in the Yang Ming Mountains near Taipei and the Hualian National Park. Milton’s “12 Principles for Presencing” was featured in our September 2011 newsletter, he is a spiritual teacher on Presencing to Theory U authors Otto Scharmer and Peter Senge, and “leaders, particularly in business, are finding that Milton’s capacity to guide them into an encounter with nature both allows them to find a deeper purpose and to unleash the creativity needed to live that purpose,” comments Senge. The upcoming Way of Nature retreat is designed to facilitate a personal change process through deep authentic connection with inner and outer nature which in turn enables a direct connection with one’s source of real creativity and true purpose of life in harmony with nature, if you are interested in attending this retreat please reserve the dates September 14-16 and September 21-23; and contact the Foundation for more detailed information.
Starting this June, each Dialogue Newsletter will highlight aspects of managing one’s inner nature by learning from nature. This month we present an article by Gina Hinrichs titled “Organic Organization Design”, which offers a good synthesis of the evolution of organizational design. Hinrichs observes how organizations are moving from mechanistic forms to an organic forms characterized by being purpose driven, open, whole, locally focus and empowered, distributed/networked, connected, diverse, growing and changing. Increasingly more know-how is emerging in the world about how to shape organic processes of change that demonstrate harmony, balance, integration, and ongoing evolution; are more productive and ultimately more resilient, sustainable, and adaptive – such change subsumes “inner” and “outer” and is both deeply individual and inherently collective.
Hinrichs’ organization model – shaped as a mollusk – is introduced below is her article: “Organic Organization Design” (Hinrichs, G. (2009) Organic Organization Design. OD Practitioner, Vol 41, No. 4.).
“Form follows Function” is a core design concept, and an organization, like any entity should be designed to effectively deliver to its function (purpose). Organizational design would be a relatively straightforward task if organizations operated in isolation or if the external environment was stable. But since organizations are open systems that exist within an ever changing and increasingly complex environment, the task of organizational design becomes a more challenging task. To add to the difficulty, we are in the midst of moving from an industrial age to a knowledge age that challenges existing structures.
A significant shift in thinking in the knowledge age is the use of biological metaphors rather than machine metaphors. There is a focus on the whole and the connection of the parts rather than on the parts alone. From our industrial age roots, organizations were thought to have clear boundaries and assumed an authoritarian, hierarchical pyramid like organizational structure. This was effective for the time since the need for responding to change was not as immediate. Since access to information was not easy nor was the workforce as educated, decision making was concentrated at the top. This authoritarian hierarchical model provided clarity, consistency, and control.
In today’s world, information technology, globalization, increasing customer demands, and increasing workforce education push organizations to be more flexible, responsive, and growth oriented, causing a shift to a more organic metaphor that focuses on growth and sustainability both for the organization and the environment in which it exists. Some of the emerging themes that justify a more organic organizational design approach are:
- Nature and evolution are better models for a dynamic and unpredictable world than the efficient but inflexible machines that shaped institutions throughout the Industrial Age.
- Centralized control is self-limiting. Diversity and innovation thrive where power and information are located and where the customer value creating work is done.
- Stability/change; Competition/collaboration; freedom/selfgovernance; and individuality/community are not opposites. The greatest benefit comes when we think in terms of both/and rather than either/or. This allows each concept the distinctive strength that each has to offer.
- Communities are held together and progress by the power of purpose, shared beliefs, and identity – not by force.
Factors that make an organization effective in a growth oriented complex environment are the following organic attributes captured in the comparison chart:
An organic organizational (Org2) design considers six facets (See Mollusk) somewhat sequentially (Purpose, Principles, Practices, Participants, Pieces, and Processes) and absolutely iteratively to gain perspective on the nature of an integrated organization/community and is well suited to support growth, responsiveness, and empowerment in an open system organization. It is especially suited for both local and global communities where members are drawn together by shared understanding and deep conviction to the purpose of the organization/community.
An organic organizational (Org2) design considers six facets (See Mollusk) somewhat sequentially (Purpose, Principles, Practices, Participants, Pieces, and Processes) and absolutely iteratively to gain perspective on the nature of an integrated organization/community and is well suited to support growth, responsiveness, and empowerment in an open system organization.
It is especially suited for both local and global communities where members are drawn together by shared understanding and deep conviction to the purpose of the organization/community.
Org2 Design’s Six Facets – High Level Overview
- Purpose: Pursuing what is deeply meaningful; the reason for being is the foundational level of purpose. It is internally focused and long term. Purpose is a clear and simple statement of the worthy pursuit that identifies and binds the community (stable aspect). The responsive aspect of purpose that is externally influenced is strategy
- Principles & Values: Clear, commonly understood and agreed upon statements of what will guide the behavior of the participants in pursuit of purpose. Organizing principles and shared beliefs (the What) are intrinsic values that create alignment and coordinated relationships.
- Practices: Specific agreements on How to operate and grow together (e.g. location of power/authority, decision making, accountability, acquiring and distributing resources, knowledge sharing, and acknowledgement). Trust is created in the organization when participants can anticipate how others will operate. Innovation is created in the organization when there are a minimum amount of agreements.
- Participants: Members of the organization or community. It is who is involved and how he or she contributes, is valued, and valuable. This involves roles, responsibilities, skills, competencies, learning, and movement in and out of the organization. Participants are where the package of distinctive skills is located that allows collaborative execution to the purpose/strategy.
- Pieces: Organizational structure/concept, patterns of growth, relationships, and connection to the whole. The “Pieces” are the aligned and coordinated groupings of participants executing the processes and utilize resources and information to further the purpose/strategy of the organization. The stable aspect of the organizational structure involves the functional structure that supports growth in skills and competencies. The changing/responsive aspect involves project teams and networks to respond to strategic changes and spot opportunities.
- Processes: Work and information flows that produce value. There are two main types of processes: customer value creating processes and supporting processes. There is a tension in processes to provide stability/consistency yet responsiveness/flexibility.
Real understanding of the organization is gained by experiencing and having conversations about each facet in context of each other and the organization/community that is being created.
Stay tuned to future newsletter to learn more about biomimicry – the practice of learning from and then emulating nature to solve human problems and create more sustainable designs.