為了迎接九月份的『自然之道』研習營，本月的朝邦對話新訊息持續有機性組織的議題以生物模擬 (Biomimicry)為典範。生物模擬是一種透過模仿大自然模式，提供永續的設計來解決人類問題的做法。我們將為各位介紹一種以生物模擬為基礎的概念，同時也是一本越來越受歡迎的書籍《藍色經濟The Blue Economy 》，最開始只是一個計劃，希望找出在未來十年中可以創造一億個工作機會的一百個從大自然尋找靈感的創新想法。藍色經濟希望能夠務實地將我們的社會，從一個已經濟成長為導向的傳統商業模式，轉換成以永續發展為主軸的模式，運用「生活中需要的東西必須廉價，必需品必須是免費」的原則來滿足人類的基本需求。
取自剛特‧鮑利(Gunter Pauli)著作文章《藍色經濟：在危機時刻構思出全新商業模式》。 http://www.worldacademy.org/forum/blue-economy
The Blue Economy
July’s newsletter continues on the topic of organic organizations by offering a refreshing example of biomimicry – the practice ofemulating nature to solve human problems with sustainable designs. This July we showcase a popular book and movement called The Blue Economy which began as a project to find 100 of the best nature-inspired innovations to create 100 million jobs within the next 10 years. The Blue Economy aims to pragmatically transition the conventional model of perpetual industrial growth to a model of sustainably providing for basic human needs through the principle that whatever is necessary in life should be cheap, and whatever is indispensable for life should be for free.
Shifting from a business model based on core competence and economies of scale to a framework of multiple businesses with aligned economies of scope may sound unusual but The Blue Economy is full of case studies about sustainable economies achieved through cascading systems where the waste of one product became input to another generating new flows of energy, jobs, food and revenue.
Below are a few of The Blue Economy’s main principles:
Cascading Nutrients and Energy
A cascade, like a waterfall, requires no external power; it flows with the force of gravity transporting nutrients between biological domains with the waste of one being nourishment for another. Cascading gy) and eliminating waste costs.
Example: forest “slash" (the small wood that intensifies fires) is usually removed from with machines that damage the ecology. In New Mexico however, fire prevention is integrated into a whole systems model compatible with Native culture. Slash in not burned but chipped into mulch, then mixed with local native mushrooms and spread on the tracks left by the equipment used to harvest the wood. In as little as two years, the forest floor is restored and the highly nutritious mushrooms are harvested and fed to the newly introduced bison herd; and thus cascading nutrients and energy create income while preventing forest fires.
Substituting “something” with “nothing”
Our society is heavily accustomed to consuming products that create massive waste and pollution. Both these products and their manufacturing processes have squandered limited resources and mired living environments with toxic residue. Sustainability requires a fundamental shift in our thinking to make the models of unsustainable production and consumption obsolete.
Example: Consumers do not realize that the 40 billion batteries we dump into landfills every year required energy-intensive mining and smelting in their manufacture, toxifying ecosystems and posing long term health hazards. “green” batteries are advertised as less toxic and longer lasting, but are still dependent on the old business model of mining. Sustainable thinking however has created technology that eliminates the battery altogether, such as a cellphone powered by the differential between ambient and body temperature and the pressure generated by our voice.
Example: silk as a replacement for titanium.
The production of titanium consumes large quantities of magnesium, chlorine, and argon gas as well as vast amounts of energy – and must be welded in an inert atmosphere to prevent contamination with oxygen, nitrogen, or hydrogen – both the energy inputs and the use of scarce and mined resources are extremely high. Yet, even customers who are prepared to pay the price and ignore the environmental damage will adopt a new product if it is compatible to their use, meets their production criteria, and costs less. Thus at the University of Oxford’s Zoology Department, Professor Fritz Vollrath is a creative resource for biocompatible polymers. By studying how spiders composed and recycled silk through three-dimensional spinning techniques, Vollrath and his group produce equipment and processes to manufacture surgical silk tubes and filaments as a conduit for nerve regeneration, medical sutures, and silk medical devices to regenerate damaged cartilage and bone tissues. The natural polymer silk as well serves as a substitute for titanium in products as varied as airplane parts and razors. If we compare a life cycle analysis of titanium with the simplicity of converting mulberry leaves to silk and controlling spinning pressure and moisture at more-or-less ambient temperature, we quickly understand how we can move towards sustainability.
The evolutionary path of nature is all about connecting, creating networks of networks, allowing everyone to contribute to the best of their abilities, while operating within clearly defined boundaries where nutrients and energy are endlessly cascaded as defined by the laws of physics. Within each of these systems, which can be as diverse as a desert, an alpine mountain range, a wetlands, or a tropical rainforest, the same management principles apply.
Traditional business thinking asserts that an increase in productivity is made possible by shedding jobs. Nature knows better. At a time of crisis, with millions out of work, and hundreds of millions of frustrated young people our opportunity to shape a Blue Economy is very encouraging. Emulating natural systems can unleash local entrepreneurship much like evolution embraced innovations through diversity while developing resilience, flexibility, and performance. Fortified with a vision of real sustainability more players will be
encouraged to respond to critical needs, linking the triangle of innovation, sustainability, and entrepreneurship; debt becomes social capital, external costs become opportunities to differentiate on the market, and scarcity becomes abundance.
Drawn from the article “The Blue Economy: Cultivating a New Business Model for a Time of Crisis” by Gunter Pauli. http://www.worldacademy.org/forum/blue-economy