以上圖像是由Alicia Bramlett繪製，她是一位圖像引導師，也是Value Web的成員(www.thevalueweb.org)
本文參考Ball, G.的文章 (1998年) Graphic Facilitation Focuses A Group’s Thoughts.( 圖像引導讓團體的想法更聚焦) 網路：http://www.mediate.com/articles/ball.cfm
Did you ever wish there were a better way to capture and organize a group’s ideas during a meeting than by taking endless notes on flipcharts? Graphic facilitation is a better way.
Graphic facilitation (recording or scribing) uses visual representations to help guide a meeting and record information brought up during the conversation. Just as mind maps depict relationships between key points, graphics also create an explicit group memory which capture group members’ thoughts in real time and depict the design of corporate strategies, debates of social responsibility, exploration of future technologies and more topics both curious and essential.
By drawing or creating with art forms individually or with a group graphic facilitation participants have another means for revealing their ideas, insights and leanings. Participants can view their questions, visions, scenarios and outcomes in an artful synthesis across large rolls of paper. The image connections can be either loose and free flowing or tightly structured; and yet there is still a huge room for graphic lovers to co-create with facilitators, mediators, consultants or lectors to embrace the beauty of conversation and to support participants’ learning about the different levels of a topic’s meaning.
Case study 1:
There was once an environmental regulatory agency whose employees were so continually at odds with each other that a number of staff began to develop stress-related psychosomatic illnesses. To begin resolving the difficulties, a dispute resolution practitioner and a graphic facilitator were called in to help.
The conflict centered on the agency’s process for making multi-million dollar investments in infrastructure projects that would take nine years to complete. One office was responsible for allocating money to contractors and overseeing the projects, while another office looked for instances of waste, fraud, and corruption. Inspectors felt employees should be open about corruption ‘since we’re all on the same team,’ but the employee’s own job-performance reports depended on what the inspectors found.
The graphic facilitators chose to create rich pictures of this complex situation to enable discussion without losing sight of the context. The facilitators met with employees from each office separately and, using colored markers on 4-foot-by-12-foot sheets of butcher paper, created graphic representations of each office’s version of the nine-year project cycle (although usually graphic facilitation is done in real time, as the group is speaking). The graphic representations consisted of words and icons linked into a flow, showing the various steps in the project, and in each version identified places where each office said the conflicts occurred.
When the groups looked at each other’s graphic maps they realized they were nearly identical and the conflicts were in the same places. Their belief that the other branch saw things very differently just dissolved. In less than 10 minutes after reviewing the maps, employees of the two offices jointly chose a portion of the nine-year process to work on, together. Without the aid of graphic facilitation, the facilitators don’t believe the two offices ever would have moved beyond accusations and blame so quickly.
Graphic facilitation supports the resolution of conflicts by going beyond a solely verbal approach and helping manage the complexity of group discussions by:
- reflecting back the expression of multiple perspectives,
- showing connections between thoughts,
- providing a way to store information,
- describing a complex flow of activity,
- energizing a group,
- helping a group maintain sufficient focus to work together, and
- providing an explicit structure for thinking.
Case study 2:
In a development process for San Francisco International Airport, noise and traffic issues were the subject of conflict between the airport and its neighbors. The planners created a list of 36 different mitigations for airplane noise, but used a lot of technical jargon. The mitigations were set to be discussed at a public workshop, so the graphic facilitators converted the jargon into 36 icons to explain the mitigations and facilitate discussion about them. Members of the public used the icons to discuss a great deal of information related to each mitigation, to indicate their priorities and to make suggestions for other mitigations.
The concepts of graphic facilitation are a teachable system of archetypal templates and an icon language.
Don’t dismiss this tool because you “don’t draw well enough;" a few simple and easily-learned icons, some straightforward templates, and a large piece of paper can add a great deal to the effectiveness of your facilitation work.
Illustration by Alicia Bramlett, graphic facilitator and member of The Value Web (www.thevalueweb.org)
Text is based on the article by Ball, G. (1998) Graphic Facilitation Focuses A Group’s Thoughts. Online: