02/2011 對話訊息:引導式領導 |Facilitative Leadership


二月份『對話新訊息』的焦點人物是Gibrán Rivera,以及他用引導式領導帶領社會變革互動機構 Interaction Institute for Social Change (IISC) 的故事。

IISC是一個非營利組織,提供顧問諮詢、引導、網絡建構、領導力培育及訓練。致力於培養社群間的合作力,以營造一個正義永續的世界。

二月份,專案經理顏克莉參加IISC’三天的『引導式領導』工作坊,學習IISC許多葵花寶典,包括:建構令人渴望的願景、 如何在結果、流程與關係之間取得平衡、評估介入的適當性、設計行動的途徑、 在爭議中找到同意點 、困境中找出共識,這些都是引導有效的會議的元素我們將陸續在未來的『對話新訊息』與大家分享。

Gibrán Rivera 是該機構的資深合夥人。在他是波士頓市議員候選人時,他帶動一種新的風氣直接與基層社區在一起。

在訪談中,我感受到他的談話出自內在的靈性與大格局的思考,顯示出 他對願景與使命有高度熱情,且經常花時間在這方面反思。更難得的是,他能夠在『大格局的思考』下同時保有對小事情真誠的欣賞,例如珍惜某個人或某個片刻的美感。這種特質源於他的紀律~不斷在『關心』與『放下』之間取捨以求平衡。

以下是訪談內容的摘要: 

:你看到那些正在湧現的典範?

: 一個令人愛的社群

Gibrán 的自我介紹從他對『這個正在轉移的典範』的承諾開始。他摘錄了馬丁路德的使命來描述建立一個『令人愛的社群』看起來的樣子…

Gibrán 13歲從波多黎哥移民到美國。他的世界觀建構在身為美國少數民族的經驗上。這個背景引導他走上與馬丁路德博士類似的使命,致力於民主發展與政治解放。目前Gibrán專注於運用網絡理論進行社會變革。

: 正向的社會改變要如何達成?

: 我的承諾是透過設計、主持以及引導『人性規格』的空間,讓社會變革發生。

『人性規格』 是把人與關係作優先順序的排列- 不是根據關鍵數量而是關鍵性的連結。當我們能夠熟練地讓內在領悟湧現 ( U理論中的自然流現),並更明白如何真誠的連結,即可以開始轉化到個人領導,並能夠照顧到整體的利益。Gibran在IISC工作時就是運用引導式領導與組織和社群合作,進行改變。

:如何在個人內心和組織核心培育對話的藝術?

: 引導式領導

傳統上,我們想到領導力指的是一個人具有足以影響別人的技能、特質以及行為。把領導力當成一種流程時,重點放在團隊、組織、網絡、社群的優勢,把優勢融入於領導力流程,邀請個人做內在功課使得他們能夠貢獻自己真正的天賦服務集體。

引導式領導可能運用一些技巧或行為,但真正的成功來自於引導的本質。

聆聽技巧的練習、對話工具如開放空間會議科技、世界咖啡館、深度匯談、焦點討論法、團隊共創法等都可以增進一個人的引導本質。

在人性系統、團體或組織或社群中的有效的領導力,主要在創造條件讓系統能夠適應威脅,讓發展與演化的機會產生桿槓效應。

引導式領導建立於『條件創造』的理念上,涵蓋創造條件讓利益相關者說出他們的見解、展現才能、主動付出行動、做決策、與他人合作以及對全體的福利分享所有的責任。

個人或團體創造這些條件的能力來自他的觀念與心態,這些包括:對內部團體動態的考慮、有更大的系統圖、有維持接納與調整的精神,心懷著愛去做-也就是Humberto Maturana (the Matriztic Institute )所謂的.『允許他人成為合法的個體』。

引導式領導是關於實用的技能,這些技能如同灌溉土壤、滋潤系統的適應力與合作力成長。相關的實作包括

  • 鼓舞共享的願景
  • 喚起大家重視結果與流程的品質
  • 呼籲注重結果、流程與關係的品質
  • 在決策過程中追求利益相關者與制度的最大參與度
  • 在多元的觀點中引導出基本的同意點
  • 設計一個流程與經驗激發人們最好的能力,體現他們渴望的共同未來
  • 給予教練以開發個人內在已有的知識
  • 肯定、慶祝並且累積各種大小成就與優勢

Gibran  認為建構領導能力是一趟自我覺知、技能發展、個人承諾的歷程。這趟歷程的風景會因為個人發展程度而有所不同。 

:永續的社群是如何形成的? 我們要如何維持它的演變?

:依據個人或那群人的發展程度和他們工作。把焦點放在培植改變的條件 而不是直接驅動改變。

這代表我們要能夠忍受事情有不同的做法、容許不確定性的存在、創造並且維持一個安全的環境讓人們接受別人的想法、發表觀點給予回饋時不戴著防禦心。

其實人們在給予回饋時,並非針對你,而是在表達他們的心智模式。因此坦白地攤開個人的心智模式,討論其目的, 邀請別人參與修正。 這種合作的能力是互動且整合的,所有的想法都是經過時間推砌彼此的想法而來,突破性的想法即來自於不同的意見與經驗的整合. 

Gibran 為自己在IISC找到了一份完美的工作。這個組織致力於培養社群間的合作力,以便營造一個正義永續的世界。 

IISC提供的服務有顧問諮詢、引導、網絡建構、領導力培育及訓練。他們的客戶因此有能力創新、有策略性思考,能夠將願景化為行動。他們的目的在協助所有合作對象發展能力。他們先以身作則展現這些能力,然後將這些合作的能力、方法轉移給對方。

目前IISC的發展重點在整合科技以及新的社群網絡以便在所有需要合作的工作上達到更大的社會影響。更多有關IISC的資訊請參考http://www.interactioninstitute.org/

IISC的宗旨與運作模式給朝邦文教基金會很多的啟發。 我們正邁向一個湧現的典範~一個具有共同經驗,受人喜愛的社群。

朝邦文教基金會宗旨

推動對話力 引導正向的社會變革 協助永續社會的發展

本基金會提供

  1. 對話力培育
  2. 對話力體驗
  3. 對話力的服務 

Facilitative Leadership


Over the past few newsletters I have written about traditional attitudes of leadership in contrast to alternative models of thinking.  This month I met with Gibrán Rivera, Senior Associate at the Interaction Institute for Social Change (IISC) and someone who at first meeting struck me as presencing a different way of thinking … 

During the month of February I attended the IISC’s “Facilitative Leadership" three-day workshop.  I learned their models and tools for how to construct compelling visions, balance results, process and relationships, asses appropriateness of an intervention, design a  pathway to action, facilitate agreement in a contentious conversation, coach and celebrate others.  Essentially, we learned how to hold an effective meeting, including how to move difficult situations toward consensus.  Stay tuned for a “Facilitative Leadership" workshop offering in the near future in Taiwan by the CPYF!

Gibrán Rivera considers these skills of facilitative leadership as key to creating positive social change and sustainable communities.  This was the basis of his candidacy for Boston City Council where he led a movement embodying a new approach to being in community.

Q: What is this “new approach to being in community?

A: Beloved Community

“I am committed to finding out what it really looks like to build a beloved community as Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. had envisioned:”

Gibrán’s attraction to community stems from his experience of moving from Puerto Rico to the U.S. at the age of 13 and growing up as a minority in American society.  Like Dr. King, he found himself drawn to the idea of democracy, the work of emancipatory politics, and today the application of network theory in social change. 

Q: What do you think is necessary to achieve positive social change?

A: Facilitating spaces where ‘human sized’ social change can become palpably real.  

“Human sized” refers to prioritizing people and relationships where emergence is about critical connections, not about critical mass.  As we become more practiced in ways of “being-with” (presencing, in Theory U terms), and familiar with what it means to be authentically connected, we begin to shift towards a personal leadership that has the capacity to skillfully care for the well-being of the whole.  This means creating the conditions where stakeholders can voice their perspectives, talents, take initiative, make decisions, work with others, and share overall responsibility for the well-being of the whole. 

 Leadership as a process of condition creation focuses on strengthening the capacity of teams, organizations, networks and communities to engage in the leadership process while inviting individuals to do the inner work that enables them to contribute their unique gifts for the service of the collective.   This capacity is a mind-set and heart-set which considers internal group dynamics and the larger systemic picture while maintaining a spirit of receptivity and adaptation that “allows the other to be a legitimate other.”

Facilitative leaders may use a toolbox of skills and behaviors, but success comes from a facilitative way of being.  To cultivate this way of being, Gibran suggests practicing through the “containers” generated in World Café and Open Space events, as well as through in the practices of the Five Disciplines and Appreciative Inquiry which: 

  1. inspire shared visions;
  2. seek maximum stakeholder & systemic  participation in decision-making;
  3. facilitate foundational agreement among diverse perspectives;
  4. are processes and experiences that bring out the best in people and embody the future they collectively desire.
  5. tap into inherent knowledge;

Building leadership capability is a process of self-awareness, skill development and personal commitment all of which vary according each own developmental level.

Q; How are sustainable communities forged, and what is needed to support their continued development?

A: Work with groups and individuals at the level of their development.  Cultivate the conditions for change rather than driving the change itself.  

Effective leadership in organizations or communities comes down to creating the conditions for systems to cope with threats and to leverage those opportunities for further development. 

This means being able to tolerate doing things differently.  Allowing uncertainty to exist, creating and holding a safe environment for people to accept the legitimacy of others’ ideas, perceptions and feedback in a non-defensive way.

I find that what helps in depersonalizing the feedback is to recognize that people are talking about their mental models and not really about you.  Therefore, explicitly talking about this mental model aloud, so it is seen for its objective nature then invite others to join you in reframing it.  This collaborative competency is iterative and integrative as ideas build on each other over time; and breakthrough ideas come out of the differences of opinion and experience.

Gibrán has found himself a perfect job working at the IISC, an organization dedicated to harnessing the power of collaboration within the social sector to create a just and sustainable world.  Looks like the CPYF and the IISC have a lot in common, reflecting perhaps the emergent paradigm that we are collectively experiencing as members of one universal beloved community.

The CP Yen Foundation mission is to foster the art of dialogue, facilitate positive social change, and forge the development of sustainable communities.  We do this by providing: Dialogue training, Dialogue experiences, Dialogue services

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