2017 年 6月份朝邦對話訊息: 昔日。今日的社會先鋒者 / CP Yen Foundation Newsletter: Social pioneers then and now

昔日。今日的社會先鋒者


朝邦基金會董事長顏瑛宗. 執行長吳咨杏 聯合執筆

《領導的勇氣》一書,對於領導的定義是 :一個 無關於頭銜或地位的角色。不論是在生活中或社會上,我們每個人都可以是領導者。

社會先鋒者就是那些促成社會正向改變的人。他們從日常所關心的事情,找出重要的社會問題,在結構上或人們的生活上創造正向的改變。

社會先鋒者嘗試在不衝突、不騷動下驅動社會前進;他們邀約人們投入, 對於需要的改變產生共識。他們通常把自己置在尖端上,在「不復存在與尚未發生」兩者之間運作。 很多的非營利組織就是社會先鋒者, 企圖把某些問題從「不再如此」的 狀態 移動到另一端「尚未存在」的理想中。

《The Courage to Lead (直譯:領導的勇氣》是一本引發深層省思的著作,引領我們思考什麼才是驅動正向社會變遷的重要動力。推動社會變革的先鋒不斷在「不復存在與尚未發生」兩者之間寫下歷史新章節。在文化事業學會(ICA)的費樂理(Larry Philbrook)引導的讀書會中,我們也注意到朝邦文教基金會在過去十八年的歷史中,扮演的正是促進社會變革先鋒的角色,而促成這些正向改變的工具,就是從台灣文化事業學會(ICA)以及其他機構所學習的引導與對話的技巧。

從一開始,將自己定位為非營利機構的朝邦,就決定走一條和市場上大多以盈利為目標的企業有所區隔的路,將重點放在腳步較慢的政府單位和資源較少的非營利事業機構。初創期間,我們透過《想像台灣》系列活動,在台中、高雄、花蓮和台北展開一系列的社會對話,同時精進我們的技巧與能力。慢慢地,朝邦建立起精實的引導團隊,成為促進組織透過對話推動正向社會變革的平台。在台灣這個充滿階層結構的組織裡,真誠的對話其實是違背傳統文化脈絡的,尤其是在公部門內更顯的挑戰。但是隨著時間的演進,以及領導人的相信與堅持,這些組織的文化開始轉變,成為正向社會變革的一塊塊基石。

我們推動《想像台灣》系列活動時,是在2007年,正值前總統陳水扁任期的尾聲和紅衫軍的激烈抗議行動。朝邦的《想像台灣》期許透過社區的對話來將社會中的歧見轉化為正面的社會改變。就如波斯詩人魯米(Rumi)曾說,「在對與錯的界線之外,有一片遼闊的地方,我會在這裡與你相會。」這個空間就是對話的空間,人們可以在做出判斷之前彼此聆聽的空間。

2016年,朝邦成為《親愛的,我老了 – 與時間對話》特展的策略夥伴。面對台灣社會人口快速老化的現象,這項活動希望藉由訓練銀髮族來擔任引導員的概念,來激勵銀髮族更積極投入社會,活出更美好人生。它的社會意義有兩個層次: (一)培養正確積極的高齡心態,(二)開展生活中跨世代的對話文化。朝邦基金會也因為這個活動獲得2016年全球引導影響力金牌獎。

此時,當我沈思這本《領導的勇氣》其中的啟示之時,也思考這個以家父顏朝邦為名的朝邦基金會繼續推動社會變革的宗旨。父親及當時的社會菁英身處台灣歷史的關鍵時期,在二次世界大戰後的半個世紀期間,從日本殖民時期銜接至國民黨的統治。也在此時,台灣從農業社會轉型至工業社會,為現今高科技產業奠定厚實的基礎。

當時有一小群菁英分子決心成為改變社會的人,挺身而出,希望為社會帶來正面的改變。無論是日據時代或是國民黨統治期,本土台灣人都無法參與政治,更別提促進任何的改變。菁英份子唯一能夠成功的途徑,就是從事於醫學、工程與農業等領域。即使受到各種的限制,這些年輕人仍期許自己能夠在「不復存在與尚未發生」兩者之間挺身而出,引領改變。

其中的管道之一就是「台灣科學促進會」,於1930年成立,目標就是透過科學與科技推動正向社會改變。促進會的創辦者為杜聰明,是台灣第一位醫學博士,也被譽為台灣現代醫學之父。他也在1902年創立台灣醫學會,更是熱帶疾病的權威。杜博士的夫人是顏家的成員,因此他算是我們家族的親戚。父親受到杜博士讓台灣更進步的願景所感動,畢生投入超過五十年的歲月,追求這願景。出生於1918年的這位專業電機工程師,在1947年時,年僅27的他就擔任台灣科學雜誌的總編輯,並從1990年至1994年辭世時擔任該刊物的總裁。

對台灣年輕菁英而言,1947年是驚濤駭浪的一年,二二八事件就在這一年發生,上千位菁英被國民黨士兵迫害。而後的數十年,蔣介石的政府對本土台灣人非常不信任,本土人進入當權政府體制(pro-establishment)內服務的管道也相當有限。

「反當權體制Disestablishment」則是反對從中國大陸撤回台灣的國民黨政府。這是一個高度不安的年代,大家都盡量避免與政治有任何牽連 ,而知識份子唯一能夠在改革過程有一點貢獻的方式就是跨體制參與 (Transestablishment),也就是當權體制 – 反當權體制 –   跨體制這個三角形的第三個元素。《領導的勇氣》說得很好,「雖然反當權體制與當權體制不斷為了現在或是過去的型態而紛爭不已,跨體制則是為其他人的未來提出詢問,勇於想像出不同的景象。」

當時想要推動社會變遷、同時不惹惱當權者,加入非營利機構台灣科學促進會似乎是唯一有施展空間的管道。跨體制的參與是唯一促成社會進步的方式。Brian Stanfield也說明,「跨體制領導的關鍵是建立架構或網絡,支持改變、為改變加持。」或者套用一句印度的諺語,「如果住在河裡,最好跟鱷魚交好。」

所以,雖然不敢說我們創辦時就如此有前瞻思維,但是朝邦基金會的確承襲家父的願景,繼續推動社會變革。或許方法不盡相同,《領導的勇氣》為我們架設很好的結構,幫助我們更清楚看見我們在台灣的這兩個世代一直努力的方向,就是透過自我的轉變,促進社會的轉變。

每一個人都可以成為社會先鋒者. 你不需要成立一個基金會或組織才能促進社會變革. 你也可以從社區的小項目開始, 比如: 種一棵樹, 將社區空地翻轉成花園等.

當然在進行社會變革, 你可能會面臨如何有創新的解決方法, 如何鼓勵與激勵他們也成為社會先鋒者, 同時還要照顧自己. 社會先鋒 是長期的承諾..

我們謹以此文向昔日.今日所有的社會先鋒者致敬;他們持續不斷的在「不復存在與尚未發生」的狀態中掙扎,, 在跨體制中為更美好的社會奮鬥!

附注: 此文參考加拿大文化事業學會出版的《The Courage to Lead (直譯:領導的勇氣)》《領導的勇氣》,第三部分-與社會的關係中的第七&八章內容為反思。


2017 September CY Yen Foundation Newsletter
Catalyzing Empathic, Engaged Citizens
The leadership needed now must be integral, facilitative, and creative.


By Robertson Work

Around the world, citizens are arising with new energy for transformation. The Arab Spring and the Occupy Wall Street movements were two recent manifestations of this. People are demanding that they participate and lead in their own governance and development. It is time to move beyond the control of corporatocracy, plutocracy, oligarchy, patriarchy, and militarism. Citizens are capable of governing their societies through their own intelligence, voice, and energy. Education, health care, justice, livelihood, shelter, food, water, and sanitation are universal human rights and services that can be provided for all, to all, and by all. Current policies based on scarcity must be replaced by policies of sufficiency and sharing.

Citizens everywhere have organized as NGOs and community-based organizations (CBOs) to engage in self-governance and development. Civil society as a whole is now seen clearly as one of the three governance actors, the other two being government and the private sector. The environmental movement, the women’s movement, and the human rights movement are the direct voices of citizens to create a sustainable and human world. To empower these citizen movements, new and effective institutional and leadership capacities are needed.


We see around the world NGOs and CBOs collaborating with local authorities and local businesses to improve the living environment in low-income settlements by improving sanitation systems and waste management, providing clean drinking water, starting clinics and community schools, and speaking out for the rights of the poor, minorities, women, youth, and the elderly. We see NGOs giving voice on behalf of other species, the oceans, air, and soil. People everywhere are waking up to their interconnectedness and know their rights and power to direct the course of history.

Knowledgeable, engaged citizens—of communities, nations, and the globe—are the keys to confronting the overwhelming challenges facing us and creating a new, empathic civilization of sustainable human development.

Innovative Leadership
No longer can leadership be by command-and-control. Absolute authority doesn’t work and is inappropriate for a race of intelligent, creative beings. Local and national governments are being called to a new style of leadership to empower and engage citizens in their own governance and development. The leadership needed at this time of crisis and opportunity must be integral, facilitative, and creative.


Traditionally, change processes have focused exclusively on institutional arrangements, policies, and systems. This collective-exterior leadership is critical but is not sufficient. Change must also happen within the culture itself—the collective interior—by changing collective values and norms through motivating and transformative stories, rites, and symbols. Change must happen in individual values and behavior—changing mind-sets and perspectives—as well as relational and interpersonal behavior. This is integral leadership—working to change collective institutions and culture and individual mind-sets and behavior. In addition to having the right legal frameworks in place, we must have the right individual and collective values and behaviors moving our societies toward a more sustainable and human future.


The facilitative leader sees himself as a guide who enables groups of people to think, analyze, plan, and act together through participatory, interactive processes. The facilitative leader asks questions of people that allow them to journey together in a structured manner toward productive outcomes. Facilitation of citizen participation is essential to motivate and call forth the creativity and energy of all the people to respond to the massive challenges facing us today. Facilitation can be learned as a new type of leadership that does not control outcomes but provides participatory processes that allow citizens to create the policies and services that are most important to them.
Facilitation requires skill and patience, an ability to listen deeply, and willingness to allow citizens to chart pathways of good governance and effective development. The facilitative leader has the skill to lead productive discussions, analytical and problem-solving workshops, strategic planning exercises, and whole system design processes. The facilitative leader asks people to articulate their hoped-for vision of the future; the factors that could enable or inhibit reaching that vision; and the strategic directions that would carry them toward their vision, taking into account the inhibiting and enhancing factors and the implementation action plan and timeline that they will commit to in the day-to-day.


The creative leader is a social artist who awakens and enlivens people’s capacities in the dimensions of the sensory/physical, psychological/historical, mythic/symbolic, and unitive/spiritual. The creative leader provides processes by which people can access their own creativity, intuition, motivation, courage, vision, and genius in solving problems and designing new systems. The leader as social artist enables citizens to deepen their capacities of body, mind, and spirit in order to release their full potential as human beings. The creative leader makes use of individual and group processes, both face to face and online, that stimulate the best thinking, doing, and being in others that is possible.

The integral, facilitative, and creative leaders help turn challenges into opportunities for sustainable human development. The government and NGO officials who learn and practice these skills find themselves becoming true civil servants—the servants of the people—which they have pledged to be as elected or appointed leaders.

We can practice facilitative, creative, and integral leadership as we share our knowledge with each other and make recommendations for ourselves and our organizations. As poet Rainer Maria Rilke says, we can “live the questions.” We can ask “What if?” and act as if it were possible. A sense of hope can carry us through this tumultuous time of crisis and danger, and the lure of a possible future will draw us toward it—a new, empathic civilization of sustainable human development. Innovative leaders within government and throughout our societies are needed to help humanity through this great transition.


Robertson Work teaches at NYU Wagner Graduate School of Public Service and is a consultant to the UN, writer, speaker, and activist. He is the author of A Compassionate Civilization: The Urgency of Sustainable Development and Mindful Activism—Reflections and Recommendations, from which this article is adapted; posted on
https://www.garrisoninstitute.org/blog/catalyzing-empathic-engaged-…

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