傳統的變革過程都僅專注於制度上的安排、政策與系統。群族外的領導者很重要，但是僅有這樣是不夠的。改變必須來自於文化本身 – 群族內 – 要改變集體的價值觀與常規，要透過激勵性、轉化性的故事、儀式與符號來改變。個人的價值觀與行為必須改變，改變他們的心態與觀點，並改變關係、人際關係的行為模式。這就是整合式的領導，努力改變集體制度與文化和個人的心態與行為。除了適度的法規架構之外，我們還必須有對的人與集體的價值觀與行為，引領社會邁向更永續發展與人性化的未來。
我們也可以練習引導式、創意式、整合式的領導力，彼此分享知識，為我們彼此以及我們的組織提出建議。就如詩人萊納·瑪利亞·里爾克（Rainer Maria Rilke)所說，我們可以「活在問題中」，問自己「如果這樣呢？」，並將這視為可行。抱持希望，就能引領我們度過這危機的時期，那希望的曙光就能帶我們朝著希望走 – 一個可以永續發展的新型、同理的文明社會。
我們需要政府體制內、社會各地的 整合式、引導式、創意式的新世紀領導人 ，幫助人們度過這巨大的過渡時期。
羅伯森·沃爾克 (Robertson Work)現任教於紐約大學瓦格納公共行政學院(New York University’s Wagner Graduate School of Public Service)，是聯合國顧問，也是作者、演講者與社運工作者。本文摘錄、整理自他的著作《慈悲的文明：永續發展與正念實踐主義的迫切感 – 省思與建議 (Compassionate Civilization: The Urgency of Sustainable Development and Mindful Activism – Reflections and Recommendations》。
2017 September CY Yen Foundation Newsletter
Catalyzing Empathic, Engaged Citizens
The leadership needed now must be integral, facilitative, and creative.
By Robertson Work
Around the world, citizens are arising with new energy for transformation. The Arab Spring and the Occupy Wall Street movements were two recent manifestations of this. People are demanding that they participate and lead in their own governance and development. It is time to move beyond the control of corporatocracy, plutocracy, oligarchy, patriarchy, and militarism. Citizens are capable of governing their societies through their own intelligence, voice, and energy. Education, health care, justice, livelihood, shelter, food, water, and sanitation are universal human rights and services that can be provided for all, to all, and by all. Current policies based on scarcity must be replaced by policies of sufficiency and sharing.
Citizens everywhere have organized as NGOs and community-based organizations (CBOs) to engage in self-governance and development. Civil society as a whole is now seen clearly as one of the three governance actors, the other two being government and the private sector. The environmental movement, the women’s movement, and the human rights movement are the direct voices of citizens to create a sustainable and human world. To empower these citizen movements, new and effective institutional and leadership capacities are needed.
We see around the world NGOs and CBOs collaborating with local authorities and local businesses to improve the living environment in low-income settlements by improving sanitation systems and waste management, providing clean drinking water, starting clinics and community schools, and speaking out for the rights of the poor, minorities, women, youth, and the elderly. We see NGOs giving voice on behalf of other species, the oceans, air, and soil. People everywhere are waking up to their interconnectedness and know their rights and power to direct the course of history.
Knowledgeable, engaged citizens—of communities, nations, and the globe—are the keys to confronting the overwhelming challenges facing us and creating a new, empathic civilization of sustainable human development.
No longer can leadership be by command-and-control. Absolute authority doesn’t work and is inappropriate for a race of intelligent, creative beings. Local and national governments are being called to a new style of leadership to empower and engage citizens in their own governance and development. The leadership needed at this time of crisis and opportunity must be integral, facilitative, and creative.
Traditionally, change processes have focused exclusively on institutional arrangements, policies, and systems. This collective-exterior leadership is critical but is not sufficient. Change must also happen within the culture itself—the collective interior—by changing collective values and norms through motivating and transformative stories, rites, and symbols. Change must happen in individual values and behavior—changing mind-sets and perspectives—as well as relational and interpersonal behavior. This is integral leadership—working to change collective institutions and culture and individual mind-sets and behavior. In addition to having the right legal frameworks in place, we must have the right individual and collective values and behaviors moving our societies toward a more sustainable and human future.
The facilitative leader sees himself as a guide who enables groups of people to think, analyze, plan, and act together through participatory, interactive processes. The facilitative leader asks questions of people that allow them to journey together in a structured manner toward productive outcomes. Facilitation of citizen participation is essential to motivate and call forth the creativity and energy of all the people to respond to the massive challenges facing us today. Facilitation can be learned as a new type of leadership that does not control outcomes but provides participatory processes that allow citizens to create the policies and services that are most important to them.
Facilitation requires skill and patience, an ability to listen deeply, and willingness to allow citizens to chart pathways of good governance and effective development. The facilitative leader has the skill to lead productive discussions, analytical and problem-solving workshops, strategic planning exercises, and whole system design processes. The facilitative leader asks people to articulate their hoped-for vision of the future; the factors that could enable or inhibit reaching that vision; and the strategic directions that would carry them toward their vision, taking into account the inhibiting and enhancing factors and the implementation action plan and timeline that they will commit to in the day-to-day.
The creative leader is a social artist who awakens and enlivens people’s capacities in the dimensions of the sensory/physical, psychological/historical, mythic/symbolic, and unitive/spiritual. The creative leader provides processes by which people can access their own creativity, intuition, motivation, courage, vision, and genius in solving problems and designing new systems. The leader as social artist enables citizens to deepen their capacities of body, mind, and spirit in order to release their full potential as human beings. The creative leader makes use of individual and group processes, both face to face and online, that stimulate the best thinking, doing, and being in others that is possible.
The integral, facilitative, and creative leaders help turn challenges into opportunities for sustainable human development. The government and NGO officials who learn and practice these skills find themselves becoming true civil servants—the servants of the people—which they have pledged to be as elected or appointed leaders.
We can practice facilitative, creative, and integral leadership as we share our knowledge with each other and make recommendations for ourselves and our organizations. As poet Rainer Maria Rilke says, we can “live the questions.” We can ask “What if?” and act as if it were possible. A sense of hope can carry us through this tumultuous time of crisis and danger, and the lure of a possible future will draw us toward it—a new, empathic civilization of sustainable human development. Innovative leaders within government and throughout our societies are needed to help humanity through this great transition.
Robertson Work teaches at NYU Wagner Graduate School of Public Service and is a consultant to the UN, writer, speaker, and activist. He is the author of A Compassionate Civilization: The Urgency of Sustainable Development and Mindful Activism—Reflections and Recommendations, from which this article is adapted; posted on